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Canadian Identity in the Group of Seven's Artistic Exploration

By Shaorui Ren

A.Y. Jackson, Algoma Hills, 1919-20


In the heart of the Canadian wilderness, Alexander Young Jackson's paintbrush danced with the vibrant hues of nature's untamed beauty. His paintings of the Algoma region—as exemplified by Algoma Hills, 1919-20 in the Faculty Club collection—represent the pinnacle of his exploration of Canadian identity, within the broader context of the Group of Seven's artistic endeavours. Jackson was a member of the iconic Group of Seven, a collective of landscape painters who played a pivotal role in shaping the country's artistic identity. One of Jackson's notable contributions to the Group of Seven's body of work is his depictions of the Algoma region in Northern Ontario, particularly the Algoma Hills. These paintings capture the raw essence of the northern wilderness and make a significant contribution to the Group's vision of a uniquely Canadian art.  

A.Y. Jackson joined other members of the Group of Seven in painting the raw beauty of the Canadian landscape. The Algoma region's rugged terrain, dense forests and pristine lakes provided a rich source of inspiration for his work. The region became a muse for him and his colleagues, providing them with a canvas that reflected what they believed to be the unique spirit of Canada's wilderness. Jackson's artistic style is marked by bold brushstrokes, bright colours, and a deep connection to the land. In Algoma, he masterfully captured the dramatic landscapes and unique qualities of light in the northern wilderness. Jackson's paintings of Algoma often illustrate the region's seasonal changes, the fiery tones of autumn to the tranquil landscapes of winter. Linking Canadian identity to the climate and geography of Ontario, Jackson's work transcends mere representation to convey the essence of each season, contributing to the Group of Seven's mission of depicting uniquely "Canadian" art. His Algoma paintings—and in collaboration with other members of the Group of Seven who worked along similar lines—thus played a crucial role in shaping Canada's artistic identity. 

This means that the paintings of Algoma are more than just artistic expressions; they embody the G7’s mission to define Canadian identity through art. To assist with this, Jackson and his colleagues deliberately departed from European conventions of painting pastoral landscapes, choosing to embrace what they saw as the unique characteristics of the Canadian landscape. In the process, they laid the foundation for a uniquely Canadian art that celebrated the country's vastness and varied landscapes. Taken together, Jackson’s Algoma paintings are part of the Group of Seven’s broader exploration of the Canadian landscape and are a powerful expression of the Group’s commitment to defining uniquely Canadian art that reflects the country’s natural beauty.


Jackson's paintings of Algoma have left an enduring legacy, not only in the work of the Group of Seven, but also in the broader context of Canadian art. His contribution to capturing the spirit of Canada's wilderness influenced subsequent generations of artists, making him a central figure in the nation's artistic legacy. 

In short, A.Y. Jackson’s paintings of the Algoma region encapsulate the Group of Seven’s ethos of exploring Canadian identity through art. His unique style, attention to the changing seasons, and commitment to depicting the unique character of the Algoma region have made these paintings an integral part of Canada's artistic heritage. His work is a testament to the power of art in shaping and reflecting a nation's identity.



A. Y. Jackson, "THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANADIAN ART," Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 97, no. 4786 (January 14, 1949): 129-43.

Wayne Larsen, A.Y. Jackson: the life of a landscape painter, Toronto: Dundurn, 2009.

Peter Wilton, "Frederick Banting and the Group of Seven," Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) 161, no. 10 (1999): 1232.

Peter Zimonjic, "Transformations: The lives and art of A. Y. Jackson and Otto Dix," National Gallery of Canada, June 16, 2014,

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